A poem by Wang Zhihuan of the Tang Dynasty made Yumen Pass an immortal name. The poem goes like this: 芒鈧揟he Yellow River can be seen disappearing into the white clouds in the sky. An isolated market town is surrounded by mountains. Why is the person playing the musical instrument of the Qiang so sad? It is because spring has never been to Yumen Pass芒鈧?
The establishment of Yumen Pass is associated with many important historical events. From 156 B.C. to 87 B.C., Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent Zhang Qian to be an ambassador to the Western Regions. As a result, the Han Dynasty had started to learn about the grass, horses, customs and products of Western Regions. After some time, the relations between the Dynasty and peoples in Western Regions became intensified, and Han Dynasty had organized three major military actions against Huns. In the end, the military threat from the western border was eliminated, and a passage for trading and cultural exchanges was created. That芒鈧劉s the Silk Road.
Yumen Pass was completely built with earth, with a total area of about 600 square meters. The length from east to west is 24.5 meters, the width from south to north is 26.4 meters, the remaining height is 9.7 meters, the width on top is 3.7 meters, the width on bottom from east to west is 4 meters, and width on bottom from north to south is 4.9 meters. There are two gates. One is to the west and the other is to the north. There is a 1.3-meter-wide passageway for pedestrians. The pass was built with internal and external parapet walls. There is a passage way for horses in the southeast corner of the pass, less than 1 meter wide, that leads to top of the pass.